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These involved rules ending a game in extra time early, either when the first goal in extra time was scored golden goal , or if one team held a lead at the end of the first period of extra time silver goal.
Golden goal was used at the World Cup in and The first World Cup game decided by a golden goal was France 's victory over Paraguay in Germany was the first nation to score a golden goal in a major competition, beating Czech Republic in the final of Euro Silver goal was used in Euro Both these experiments have been discontinued by IFAB.
Under the Laws, the two basic states of play during a game are ball in play and ball out of play. From the beginning of each playing period with a kick-off until the end of the playing period, the ball is in play at all times, except when either the ball leaves the field of play, or play is stopped by the referee.
When the ball becomes out of play, play is restarted by one of eight restart methods depending on how it went out of play:. A foul occurs when a player commits an offence listed in the Laws of the Game while the ball is in play.
The offences that constitute a foul are listed in Law Handling the ball deliberately, tripping an opponent, or pushing an opponent, are examples of "penal fouls", punishable by a direct free kick or penalty kick depending on where the offence occurred.
Other fouls are punishable by an indirect free kick. The referee may punish a player's or substitute's misconduct by a caution yellow card or dismissal red card.
A second yellow card in the same game leads to a red card, which results in a dismissal. A player given a yellow card is said to have been "booked", the referee writing the player's name in his official notebook.
If a player has been dismissed, no substitute can be brought on in their place and the player may not participate in further play.
Misconduct may occur at any time, and while the offences that constitute misconduct are listed, the definitions are broad. In particular, the offence of "unsporting behaviour" may be used to deal with most events that violate the spirit of the game, even if they are not listed as specific offences.
A referee can show a yellow or red card to a player, substitute or substituted player. Non-players such as managers and support staff cannot be shown the yellow or red card, but may be expelled from the technical area if they fail to conduct themselves in a responsible manner.
Rather than stopping play, the referee may allow play to continue if doing so will benefit the team against which an offence has been committed.
This is known as "playing an advantage". Even if an offence is not penalised due to advantage being played, the offender may still be sanctioned for misconduct at the next stoppage of play.
The referee's decision in all on-pitch matters is considered final. Along with the general administration of the sport, football associations and competition organisers also enforce good conduct in wider aspects of the game, dealing with issues such as comments to the press, clubs' financial management, doping , age fraud and match fixing.
Most competitions enforce mandatory suspensions for players who are sent off in a game. Sanctions for such infractions may be levied on individuals or on to clubs as a whole.
Penalties may include fines, points deductions in league competitions or even expulsion from competitions.
For example, the English Football League deduct 12 points from any team that enters financial administration.
Teams that had forfeited a game or had been forfeited against would be awarded a technical loss or win. The recognised international governing body of football and associated games, such as futsal and beach soccer is FIFA.
Six regional confederations are associated with FIFA; these are: National associations oversee football within individual countries. These are generally synonymous with sovereign states, for example: This competition takes place every four years since with the exception of and tournaments, which were cancelled due to World War II.
Approximately — national teams compete in qualifying tournaments within the scope of continental confederations for a place in the finals. The finals tournament, which is held every four years, involves 32 national teams competing over a four-week period.
Under the tournament's current format, national teams vie for 23 slots in a three-year qualification phase.
The host nation's team is automatically entered as the 24th slot. There has been a football tournament at every Summer Olympic Games since , except at the games in Los Angeles.
Originally, the tournament was for amateurs only. The countries that benefited most were the Soviet Bloc countries of Eastern Europe , where top athletes were state-sponsored while retaining their status as amateurs.
Between and , 23 out of 27 Olympic medals were won by Eastern Europe, with only Sweden gold in and bronze in , Denmark bronze in and silver in and Japan bronze in breaking their dominance.
Since male competitors must be under 23 years old, and since , players under 23 years old, with three over year old players, are allowed per squad.
A women's tournament was added in ; in contrast to the men's event, full international sides without age restrictions play the women's Olympic tournament.
After the World Cup, the most important international football competitions are the continental championships, which are organised by each continental confederation and contested between national teams.
The most prestigious competitions in club football are the respective continental championships, which are generally contested between national champions, for example the UEFA Champions League in Europe and the Copa Libertadores in South America.
The governing bodies in each country operate league systems in a domestic season , normally comprising several divisions , in which the teams gain points throughout the season depending on results.
Teams are placed into tables , placing them in order according to points accrued. Most commonly, each team plays every other team in its league at home and away in each season, in a round-robin tournament.
At the end of a season, the top team is declared the champion. The top few teams may be promoted to a higher division, and one or more of the teams finishing at the bottom are relegated to a lower division.
The teams finishing at the top of a country's league may be eligible also to play in international club competitions in the following season.
The main exceptions to this system occur in some Latin American leagues, which divide football championships into two sections named Apertura and Clausura Spanish for Opening and Closing , awarding a champion for each.
Some countries' top divisions feature highly paid star players; in smaller countries, lower divisions, and most of women's clubs, players may be part-timers with a second job, or amateurs.
Football hooliganism is the term used to describe disorderly, violent or destructive behaviour perpetrated by spectators at football events. Variants of football have been codified for reduced-sized teams i.
Such games can have team sizes that vary from eleven-a-side, can use a limited or modified subset of the official rules, and can be self-officiated by the players.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Soccer disambiguation. This article is about the sport of association football.
For other codes of football, see Football. The attacking player No. Names for association football. History of association football. Children playing cuju in Song dynasty China.
An episkyros player on an ancient stone carving at the National Archaeological Museum, Athens. For the rules of other football games, see Football.
Laws of the Game association football. Association football positions , Formation association football , and Kit association football.
Ball in and out of play. Players are cautioned with a yellow card, and dismissed from the game with a red card. Association football around the world.
List of association football competitions. Geography of association football and Geography of women's association football. Variants of association football and Street football.
The most recent changed was in , from 24 to Retrieved 11 July Retrieved 29 April Archived from the original on 12 June Retrieved 4 June A Comparative and Developmental Approach.
Sociological Studies of Sport, Violence and Civilisation. It has been estimated that there were 22 million soccer players in the world in the early s, and that number is increasing.
Archived from the original on 14 March Retrieved 6 January Retrieved 29 October The Sydney Morning Herald.
Retrieved 20 June Retrieved 17 September Kennell, The Gymnasium of Virtue: Retrieved 19 June Retrieved 15 December Archived from the original on 1 July Retrieved 20 November Football, the first hundred years.
Retrieved 7 October Retrieved 9 October Archived from the original on 1 May Retrieved 4 March Retrieved 10 December Archived from the original on 22 April Retrieved 2 September Archived from the original on 8 June Retrieved 8 June Retrieved 5 June Archived from the original on 22 September Retrieved 17 March Archived from the original PDF on 15 September American football leagues exist throughout the world, but the game has yet to achieve the international success and popularity of baseball and basketball.
The league's championship game is the Eurobowl. All of these countries rank far below the United States, which is dominant at the international level.
Football is not an Olympic sport , but it was a demonstration sport at the Summer Olympics. Large team sizes are an additional difficulty, due to the Olympics' set limit of 10, athletes and coaches.
American football also has the issue of global visibility. Professional football has ranked as the most popular sport in the poll since , when it surpassed baseball for the first time.
In a study, the NCAA estimated there were around 1. American football also plays a significant role in American culture. The day on which the Super Bowl is held is considered a de facto national holiday ,  and in parts of the country like Texas , the sport has been compared to a religion.
Merit is rewarded, not punished. Masculinity is celebrated, not feminized. People of various beliefs and backgrounds — a melting pot, if you will — must unify for a common goal for the team to be successful".
The safety of the sport has also sparked national controversy in American popular culture. It is often received as "overly aggressive", and defamiliarized in popular culture.
Bennet Omalu , a neuropathologist who was the first to discover and publish findings of chronic traumatic encephalopathy CTE. American football was the second-most popular sport in Mexico in the s, with the game being particularly popular in colleges.
American football is the fifth most popular sport in Mexico and the country has the highest rating of the NFL outside the United States.
Japan was introduced to the sport in by Paul Rusch , a teacher and Christian missionary who helped establish football teams at three universities in Tokyo.
Play was halted during World War II, but began to grow in popularity again after the war. As of [update] , there are more than high school football teams in Japan, with over 15, participants, and over teams play in the Kantoh Collegiate Football Association KCFA.
Europe is a major target for expansion of the game by football organizers. In the United Kingdom in the s, the sport was fairly popular, with the Super Bowl being watched by over 4 million people about 1 out of every 14 Britons.
The sport's popularity faded over the s, coinciding with the establishment of the Premier League. According to BBC America , there is a "social stigma" surrounding American football in the UK, with many Brits feeling the sport has no right to call itself 'football' due to the small emphasis on kicking.
Super Bowl viewership has also rebounded, with over 4. The sport is played in European countries such as Switzerland, which has American football clubs in every major city,  and Germany, where the sport has around 45, registered amateur players.
But in these countries American football has not yet reached the same level of popularity it has, for example, in North America. Brazil's audience is the 3rd of the world, behind only Mexico and United States.
Rumors were that a Pro Bowl edition could be held there. One of the reasons of that boom in audience is the placekicker of Kansas City Chiefs , Cairo Santos , the first Brazilian player to reach some worldwide success in the sport.
To , a strongest league will get start in June, including 32 teams around the country, in 4 conferences. The recent born team already won his state championship, and for the Brazilian top league already has signed with former NFL's player Nic Harris.
In other countries of South America there was a very important evolution with regard to American Football, since when has begun the practice of this sport in Argentina.
Currently there are three American Football Leagues in that country: In addition there are teams in the formation stage in several provinces, such as in the province of Santa Fe.
Canadian football , the predominant form of football in Canada, is closely related to American football — both sports developed from rugby, and the two sports are considered to be the chief variants of gridiron football.
Punting is illegal, and kickoffs are attempted from the goal line. Large overhead nets deflect forward passes and kicks that hit them, and deflected kicks are live balls that may be recovered by either team.
Like in arena football, teams in indoor football leagues play in arenas, but games are only attended by a small number of fans, and most players are semi-professional athletes.
Indoor football leagues are unstable, with franchises regularly moving from one league to another or merging with other teams, and teams or entire leagues dissolving entirely.
There are several non-contact variants of American football, such as flag football. A game of touch football may require that the player be touched with either one or two hands to be considered down, depending on the rules used.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the American variation of gridiron football. For a broader usage of the name, see American football disambiguation.
Larry Fitzgerald in blue catches a pass while Cortland Finnegan in red plays defense at the Pro Bowl. Team sport ball game.
Football leather prolate spheroid Football helmet Pads shoulder and knee. History of American football. Official American football , Chain crew , and Penalty gridiron football.
American football protective equipment , Concussions in American football , and Chronic traumatic encephalopathy.
American football in the United States. Canadian football , Arena football , and Flag football. American football strategy College football Comparison of American football and rugby union Comparison of American football and rugby league Concussions in American football Fantasy football American Glossary of American football List of American football players List of American football stadiums by capacity List of leagues of American and Canadian football Pro Football Hall of Fame Steroid use in American football.
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